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  1. You are in: CITES
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  3. Useful Information
  4. Statistics

 Statistics

The obligations of the CITES Management Authority include the preparation of an Annual Report for the CITES Secretariat with the international trade data for specimens of species listed in the Appendices of the CITES Convention. The report shows international trade data for Spain, but does not include trade within the EU.
International trade statistics for all Parties can be found on the CITES Trade Database, which is managed by UNEP-WCMC on behalf of the CITES Secretariat.

IMPORTS

The following table shows the most significant imports of CITES specimens, classified by purpose of import:
 

Imports of CITES specimens, by purpose:

Purpose

Unit

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012​

Commercial

Purposes

uni

Kg

m3

m2
 

619.246

56.177

2.923

29.400

548.940

211.173

330

3.340

356.590

102.847

68

20.000

392.475

31.670

186

 0

342.322

300.128

20.614

 0

238.018

88.862

104

Hunting trophies

uni

1.740

1.398

1.608

1.049

1.856​

871

Other purposes

uni

ml

5.141

0

4.096

0

6.077

0

5.886

322

3.288​

504

8.387

394​

Total

uni

Kg

m3

m2

ml

626.127

56.177

2.923

29.400

0 

554.434

211.173

330

3.340

0

362.275

102.847

68

20.000

0

399.410

31.672

186

0

353

347.466

300.128

20.614

 0

504

247.276

88.863

104

394

 

Most imports to Spain are for commercial purposes; only a small portion of imports is comprised of hunting trophies and personal effects, and specimens for scientific institutions, zoos, botanic gardens, biomedical research, exhibitions, etc.
 
 
The following table shows more detailed information on the major CITES imports to Spain for commercial purposes between 2007 and 2012:
 
Main imports for commercial purposes:
Specimen Unit 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011​ 2012​

Whole skins and flanks

uni

108.606

95.281

75.424

110.089

131.366

155.453​

Skin pieces

uni

Kg

48.520

503

5.804

1.770

0

611

278

194

800

199

0

413

Live animals

uni

96.575

85.226

61.540

42.725

35.861

24.948

Live plants

uni

273.136

321.744

195.769

218.424

450.915

37.835​

Corals (other than live corals)

uni

Kg

3.771

6.803

4.101

4.841

3.797

2.108

2.786

4.010

4.192

5.657

3.003

5.283

Manufactured goods

uni

Kg

78.634

0

27.648

 0

17.297

 0

17.398

3

18.795

5

16.459

1

 Wood logs, veneer sheets, and powdered bark

uni

Kg

m3

m2

0

250

2.923

29.400

0

154.561

330

3.340

0

79.125

68

20.000

0

0

186

0

0

0

20.614

0

306

0

104

0

Miscellaneous products

uni

Kg

10.004

48.623

9.136

50.001

2.853

7.096

745

27.463

393

294.267

14

83.165

Total

uni

Kg

m3

m2

619.246

56.177

2.923

29.400

548.940

211.173

330

3.340

356.680

88.940

68

20.000

392.475

31.670

186

0

342.322

300.128

20.614

0

238.018

88.862

104

0

 

The following aspects should be underlined:
  • Skin imports: predominantly, whole skins and flanks, as well as skin pieces; 94.64% of skins imported in 2012 were reptile skins, mainly crocodile (39.74% in 2012), and python skins (28.58% in 2012). A portion of these imported skins are subsequently re-exported as dyed and finished leather, or as leather products (shoes, bags, etc.). Spain also imports other skins, e.g., Argentine Grey Fox (Lycalopex griseus).
    • Evolution: there was a gradual drop in skin imports, reaching a minimum of 75.424 units in 2009, following which there was some recovery, basically due to the increase in crocodile skin imports.  
  • Live animals: mainly imports of live reptiles (16,635 specimens in 2012, representing 66.68% of total), comprising mainly, in the following order of importance: captive-bred iguanas (species Iguana iguana), tortoises (species Testudo horsfieldii, and Stigmochelys pardalis), and snakes (species Python regius, and Boa constrictor). Live corals represented 24.65% of this total in 2012, mainly from the Order Scleractinia; scorpions (mainly Pandinus imperator) accounted for 3.41% of total in 2012.
    • Evolution: The number of imported specimens has decreased since 2007. Between 2008 and 2012, the most significant decreases occurred in imports of tortoises, chameleons, and psittacids (especially, Agapornis), which dropped by more than 90%; imports of iguanas and snakes decreased by approximately 60%. Trade was also affected by the adoption of EU Trade Regulations, e.g., imports of European eels ceased in 2010 as a result of the EU trade prohibition.
  • Live plants: Cycadaceae (mainly Cycas revoluta) accounted for 54.76 % of live plant imports in 2012; Orchids represented 16.77% (mainly Dendrobium and Phalaenopsis hybrids), Cactaceae 16.62%, Euphorbiaceae 10.69%, the remainder being species of other families.
    • Evolution: imports of live plants have fluctuated significantly in number from year to year. There was less variability among imported species, and a slight increase in orchid imports over the last few years.  
  • Corals (other than live corals): fossil or dead corals, and coral rock or substrate (Scleractinia sp), comprising several different species, used for aquarium adornment.
  • Manufactured goods: mainly small leather items such as watch straps, shoes, handbags, etc., made of crocodile skin (76.74% of total in 2012), and python skin (17.35 % of total manufactured goods in 2012).
    • Evolution: import volumes have gradually decreased since 2007; there has been no variation in the species in trade.
  • Wood logs, veneer sheets, and powdered bark: the number of species in trade, and trade volumes vary greatly from year to year; accordingly, the units used for measurement also vary depending on the species imported, and the level of processing. In 2012, imports were mainly of the species Diospyros crassiflora and Pericopsis elata.
  • Miscellaneous products: mainly, in the following order of importance, African cherry bark (Prunus africana, notably in 2011), aloe extract (Aloe ferox), Brazilian rosewood oil (Aniba rosaedora), and farmed caviar.

EXPORTS AND RE-EXPORTS

Exports account for a very small fraction of total outgoing trade from Spain, which is comprised mainly of re-exports.
 
Exports are mainly specimens from an EU Member State, usually live specimens from Spain (wild, captive-bred, or artificially propagated), and to a lesser extent, specimens from other EU Member States (considered intra-community trade). Goods originating from Spain are mainly artificially propagated nursery plants, and captive-bred sturgeon caviar and meat.
Re-exports include products manufactured in Spain using raw materials (skins, wood, etc.) from other countries, and products that are re-exported without undergoing any form of processing.
 
The following table shows that practically all exports and re-exports are authorized for commercial purposes; only a very small portion of exports and re-exports involve personal effects, animals for zoos, specimens for biomedical research, etc.
 
Export and re-export of CITES specimens by purpose of trade:

Purpose

Unit

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011​

2012​

 Commercial purpose

uni

Kg

m2

ml

498.704

63.896

0

0

326.223

100.465

0

0

146.285

4.595

114

0

299.307

8.466

10.340

1.972

214.182

10.094

10.610

945​

167.506

7.767

0

344

Hunting trophies

uni

10

16

18

13

18​

10​

Other purposes

uni

Kg

ml

1.495

0

0

637

0

0

186

0

0

405

5

1.140

2.084

26

3.110​

434​

30

1.051

Total

uni

Kg

m2

ml

500.209

63.896

0

0

326.860

100.465

0

0

146.489

4.595

114

0

299.725

8.471

10.340

3.112

216.284

10.120

10.610

4.055

167.950

7.798

0

1.395

 

 
The following table shows, in greater detail, the evolution of the main CITES exports and re-exports from Spain for commercial purposes between 2007 and 2012:
Main CITES exports and re-exports for commercial purposes :
Specimen Unit 2007 2008 2009 2010 201​1 2012​
Whole skins and flanks

uni

30.265

8.331

8.183

42.411

44.350

104.026

Skin pieces

uni

Kg

793

4.661

504

270

491

27

385

7

917

85​

Live animals

uni

Kg

1.225

0

1.212

0

867

0

2.021

3.960

26.027

1.800

2.209

0

Live plants

uni

106.052

148.570

102.580

125.641

103.680

18.357

Manufactured goods

uni

Kg

353.504

0

167.453

0

34.379

0

128.743

1

39.707

42

41.750

1

Logs, veneer sheets, and powdered bark

uni

Kg

m2

3.000

0

0

0

96.850

0

0

0

114

0

0

10.340

0

0

10.610

247

0

0

Miscellaneous products

uni

Kg

ml

4.188

3.455

0

153

3.615

0

6

4.584

0

0

4.479

1.972

32

8.244

945

0

7.682

344

Total

uni

Kg

m2

ml

499.017

8.116

0

0

326.223

100.465

0

0

146.285

4.593

114

0

299.307

8.466

10.340

1.972

214.181

10.094

10.610

945

167.506

7.767

0

344

Main items exported and re-exported for commercial purposes include:
  • Skins and flanks: in 2012, 99.93%, of reptile skin re-exports —primarily, snakeskin (69.77%), and crocodile skin (22.71%)— were skins that had been previously imported, and subsequently tanned, dyed, and finished before being re-exported. Snakeskins are mainly from the families Colubridae and Pythonidae; crocodile skins are predominantly from the family Alligator. Following a significant decrease in the years 2008 and 2009, re-exports of reptile skins have increased substantially.
  • Live animals: in 2012, mainly Psittacids and falcons (Falconidae) were exported. A notably high number of live animals were exported in 2011, 90% of which were captive-bred rock pigeons (Columba livia) from Spain. 
  • Live plants: practically all plants are artificially propagated in Spanish nurseries located mainly in the Canary Islands, and on the eastern coast. In 2012, 64.91% of exported plants were Cactaceae (the volume of which has shown a marked decrease in recent years), and 26.14% Cycadaceae.
  • Miscellaneous manufactured goods: mainly re-exports of leather products (footwear, accessories, etc.) that were made in Spain with reptile skins (99.65%) previously imported from third countries as raw or tanned skins. The main species found in trade in 2012 were crocodiles (45.16%), and serpents (24.12%) from the same families as in the case of re-exported skins and flanks. In 2012, there was also a significant number of products manufactured with tegu lizard skins, species Tupinambis rufescens and Tupinambus merianae (23.99%), and monitor lizard skins, mainly Varanus salvator and Varanus niloticus. Approximately half of wood re-exports in 2007 were ramin wood; in subsequent years, however, there were very few re-exports of ramin wood.
  • Logs, veneer sheets, and powdered bark: mainly re-exports of the species Pericopsis elata.
  • Miscellaneous products: these include highly different products ranging from African cherry tree extract (Prunus africana), Spanish farmed sturgeon caviar, or oil of Bulnesia sarmientoi, and other derivatives.

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